India is a vast country – a subcontinent with a medley of colorful people, languages, cultures, traditions and customs. Before the advent of western Government, it was not even known as a single nation and the popular saying was the 56 kingdoms ruled by 56 dynasties. Despite the seeming kaleidoscopic differences there was a spiritual and religious thread that made the string called India. As a nation, we have diversified interests and “Unity in Diversity” has been acclaimed as the greatness of India. Before independence there was only single cause-the liberation of the mother land from foreign yoke. And this expediency necessitated the growth of a Single National Party with a single goal.
Mahatma Gandhi said that after Independence the party should be disbanded and fresh parties should be formed for ruling the country. But the advice of the Father of the Nation was not needed to and freedom fighters who enjoyed the trust of the masses became rulers of the country. The opportunity for a Multi National Party Democracy was thus thwarted and during the Nehru era, the congress was the unquestioned single ruling party. A few national leaders who participated in the Freedom struggle, could not establish an equally popular party like the Congress. Since there was no national cause but for the brief Chinese invasion,
Since people tasted the bitterness of emergency, losing their fundamental rights, the Congress could not get majority and the first coalition government of Morarji Desai was put on the saddle which could not survive the stipulated period could not give a stable government. Congress was voted to power once again and till Rajiv was Prime Minister, the Congress rule existed by poll adjustments in the States dividing the constituencies with local parties. Afterwards India has seen only hung parliaments with no single party majority and coalition government became the order of the day.
The coalitions of Mr.V.P.Singh, Mr. Chandrasekhar, Mr.Gowda, Mr.I.K.Gujral and Mr. Vajpayee could not survive the full period, because of the partners pulling in different directions. Every partner of the coalition has some axe to grind and if it proves futile, the support is withdrawn with the result, the government precariously aborts. Though a common minimum policy, a national agenda, a common program is charted, the implementation brings certain differences of opinion and endangers the government. The credit of successfully running a hung parliament to its full period goes to Mr. Narashima Rao, who despite sarcastic and vitriolic criticism patiently bore the brunt.